Amortization Schedule: Calculation and Examples

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Amortization is a financial term that refers to the process of spreading out the repayment of a loan or a debt over a specific period.

It involves dividing the principal amount into equal installments, including both the principal and interest, which are paid regularly over the loan term.

An amortization schedule provides a detailed breakdown of these payments, helping borrowers understand the distribution of their payments and the gradual reduction of their debt.

In this article, we will explore the concept of an amortization schedule, how to calculate it using a formula, and provide examples for better comprehension.

What is an Amortization Schedule?

An amortization schedule is a table that outlines the periodic payments required to pay off a loan or debt.

It provides valuable information such as the payment amount, interest paid, principal paid, and the remaining balance for each period.

This schedule is designed to ensure borrowers have a clear understanding of their repayment obligations and track their progress in reducing the debt.

How to Calculate an Amortization Schedule

To calculate an amortization schedule, you can use a formula that takes into account the loan amount, interest rate, and loan term. The formula is as follows:

PMT = (P * r * (1 + r)^n) / ((1 + r)^n – 1)

PMT = Payment per period
P = Principal loan amount
r = Monthly interest rate (annual rate divided by 12)
n = Total number of payment periods

Example of Amortization

Let’s consider a practical example to illustrate the concept of amortization. Suppose you take out a $50,000 loan with an annual interest rate of 5% for a term of 5 years (60 months).

Plugging these values into the formula, we can calculate the monthly payment:

PMT = (50,000 * 0.05/12 * (1 + 0.05/12)^60) / ((1 + 0.05/12)^60 – 1)
PMT ≈ $943.34

This means that you will need to make monthly payments of approximately $943.34 over the course of 60 months to fully repay the loan.

Amortizing in Accounting

In accounting, amortizing refers to the gradual reduction of an intangible asset’s value over time. Intangible assets include patents, copyrights, trademarks, and goodwill.

By amortizing these assets, businesses spread the cost of acquiring them over their useful life, reflecting the asset’s diminishing value accurately.


What is the purpose of an amortization schedule?

An amortization schedule helps borrowers understand their repayment structure, including the distribution of principal and interest, and enables them to track their progress in paying off their debt.

How does amortization affect the interest paid?

As the principal amount decreases over time, the portion of the payment allocated to interest decreases, resulting in a higher portion allocated to the principal repayment.

Can I change the terms of my loan after reviewing the amortization schedule?

Generally, loan terms can be renegotiated with the lender; however, any changes to the loan agreement may affect the amortization schedule.

Are all loans amortized?

No, not all loans are amortized. Some loans, such as interest-only loans or balloon loans, may have different repayment structures. It’s important to understand the terms of your specific loan.

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